Portraits dating from 1500 1750

936 Otto the Great is crowned king in Germany and is responsible for Germany's strength through the latter part of the eleventh century.Otto establishes a pattern of resistance to political fragmentation and a close alliance with the Church.768 Pepin's son, Carolus Magnus (Charlemagne), succeeds his father and is one of the most important rulers of medieval history.In time, his empire, known as the Carolingian dynasty, includes the greater section of central Europe, northern Italy and central Italy in addition to realms already conquered by Frankish rule.955 John XII becomes pope at the age of eighteen and rules for nine years.His title as pope exemplifies the decline in value of the Church in the early-medieval period.

This event indicates an autonomous Western culture based on Western Christianity and Latin linguistics.

Byzantine Emperor Leo the Isaurian, who reigns until 741, counters the Arab attempt with "Greek Fire" (a liquid mixture of sulfur, naphtha and quicklime which is released from bronze tubes, situated on ships and on the walls of Constantinople) and great military strength.

Leo defeats the Arab forces and reconquers most of Asia Minor.

Alfred is responsible for the codification of English law, public interest in local government and the reorganization of the army. 910 The Benedictine monastery of Cluny in Burgundy becomes a place of monastic reform.

He founds schools and promotes Anglo-Saxon literacy and the establishment of a national culture. The two major innovations here are the direct subjection of monasteries to the pope—avoiding secular, local and ecclesiastical powers—and the building of "daughter monasteries" subordinate to the Cluniac "family," which grows to sixty-seven monasteries by 1049.

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