Common dating rituals in south amercia

At the same time, Teotihuacán, in the Valley of Mexico, became the capital of a political and commercial empire encompassing much of Mesoamerica.

Toltecs of Tula, in central Mexico, prevailed from about 900 to 1200 (the Early Postclassic Period).

In the organization of its kingdoms and empires, the sophistication of its monuments and cities, and the extent and refinement of its intellectual accomplishments, the Mesoamerican civilization, along with the comparable Andean civilization farther south, constitutes a New World counterpart to those of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China., hunting-and-gathering peoples occupied most of the New World south of the glacial ice cap covering northern North America.

The cooler climate of this period as compared with that of the present day supported a grassland vegetation, especially in the highland valleys, that was ideal for large herds of grazing animals.

The shift toward sedentary agriculture apparently began after about 7000 .

In addition to corn, crops included beans, squashes, chili peppers, and cotton.

As agricultural productivity improved, the rudiments of civilization emerged during the period designated by archaeologists as the Corn cultivation in one area—the humid and fertile lowlands of southern Veracruz and Tabasco, in Mexico—was sufficiently productive to permit a major diversion of human energy into other activities, such as the arts and commerce.

Struggles for control of this rich but limited farmland resulted in a dominant landowning class that shaped the first great Mesoamerican civilization, the , a time when the rest of Mesoamerica was at best on a Neolithic level.

Mesoamerican civilization, the complex of indigenous cultures that developed in parts of Mexico and Central America prior to Spanish exploration and conquest in the 16th century.

The dances fell into three main categories: Ritual (religious), Ceremonial, and Griotic (storytelling).

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It contains several small islands in the Atlantic, including San Andrea and Providencia, and in the Pacific, the Malpelo and Gorgona islands have been set aside as natural wildlife reserves.

Colombia borders Ecuador and Peru to the south, Brazil and Venezuela to the east, and Panama to the northwest.

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The Atlantic or Caribbean coastal lowlands receive less rainfall than the area along the Pacific.

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